The concept of a nation-state is notoriously difficult to define. Aware of the need to clarify the terminology used in constitutions and legislation in force to cover the phenomenon of ethnic, linguistic and cultural links between groups of citizens living in different states, in particular the use of the word "nation" as well as the correlation with a specific historical or political context, the Parliamentary Assembly has considered whether, and how, the concept of “nation” can help to address the question of national minorities and their rights in 21st-century Europe. 31. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Political science is one of the social sciences. Article 68.5: “(…) the law recognises, and the state shall facilitate, the exercise of the right to vote of Spaniards who are outside the territory of Spain”. Surprisingly, the answers to the questionnaire sent to national parliamentary delegations show that the word “nation”, in the sense of an identity, is in fact used very little in the member states’ constitutions. The distinction people/citizens does not appear. Politicians and the media use usually the terms "state", "nation" and "nation-state" as synonyms. 80. Most of the time constitutional provisions are completed with specific and detailed laws on the rights of minorities. As compared with the biggest group of citizens having the same ethno-cultural background, those groups, who are relatively smaller, constitute and are called national minorities. These “nations” which lived united within common borders were divided in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, but their feeling of belonging to a “nation” remained very strong, even if the members of the “nation” regarded themselves as loyal citizens of the states within which they now formed a “national” minority, ie a minority belonging to a different “nation” from that of the majority in the country. Political science, occasionally called politology, is a discipline of social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, associated constitutions and political behavior.. The French conception led to recognition of the right of self-determination; a nation exists only when it succeeds in throwing off the yoke of oppression, despotism and absolute monarchy, when it becomes an independent state based on the common political will of the people. Consequently, less than 10% of states in … 69. The emergence of the nations in Europe dates back to the 19th century. The experts questioned concluded that it was difficult, not to say impossible, to arrive at a common definition of the concept of nation. The real issue behind the debate about a possible “21st century concept of nation” is not the definition itself, but the acceptance of a new way of thinking, of rethinking the nation, and specifically the transversality of the nation across boundaries – a nation often, but not always, deeply rooted in history. Such a concept evidently comprises a political dimension and an equally important legal dimension. He therefore proposed the following definition of nation: “ A nation is a specific political, social, economic and cultural community, often with a common language, culture and history, living in neighbouring territories, with ‘independent’ political institutions and social organisations; it presupposes a politically sovereign people, master of its own territory, with its own economic life and its state or, failing this, … 109. The replies to the question on whether the law of the member states draws a distinction between so-called traditional minorities and new minorities are instructive. These national communities (minorities) created as a result of changes in national borders – and not by migratory movements – represent traditional national minorities (communities). The report itself was largely based on a report issued by the Venice Commission in October 2001 on the preferential treatment of national minorities by the kin-state. This analysis would not be complete without a reminder of the following definition, given by the Assembly in its Recommendation 1201 (1993): “the expression ‘‘national minority'' refers to a group of persons in a state who : a.       reside on the territory of that state and are citizens thereof ; b.        maintain longstanding, firm and lasting ties with that state ; c.        display distinctive ethnic, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics ; d.       are sufficiently representative, although smaller in number than the rest of the population of that state or of a region of that state ; e.        are motivated by a concern to preserve together that which constitutes their common identity, including their culture, their traditions, their religion or their language.”. Within the scope of this report, I intend first to set out the findings and conclusions of the hearing organised by the committee and the answers to the questionnaire sent to national delegations. 6 http://www.coe.int/T/F/Droits_de_l%27Homme/minorites/. There have of course been very many studies on the question by both lawyers and political scientists. A new definition is therefore unnecessary. It is the study of government. 92. Some countries lost territory but kept their old cultural and linguistic roots, without confining them within the new borders of the new nation state. 58. -        Articles 12 and 25 of the Constitution of Ukraine: “Ukraine provides for the satisfaction of national and cultural, and linguistic needs of Ukrainians residing beyond the borders of the State “; “Ukraine guarantees care and protection to its citizens who are beyond its borders”. Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, France, Iceland, Italy, Malta, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro and “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” have not yet ratified it. 86. 4.1. The Council of Europe can pride itself on three relevant instruments in the area of the protection of minority rights: the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (opened for signature in 1995), the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (opened for signature in 1992), both of which came into force in 1998, and the European Charter of Local Self-Government (opened for signature in 1985, came into force in 1988). National interest is the most crucial concept in international relations.It is the key concept in foreign policy as it provides the material based on which foreign policy is made. 71. 3.2. It focuses on human nature and the moral purposes of political association. Where representation in political institutions is concerned, it recommends that the states apply the principle of positive discrimination to members of national minorities, especially as regards proportional representation in central and decentralised institutions (including executive bodies) in particular in the regions where those minorities live. At present, 37 member states are parties to the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and another 5 have signed it. 20. The Assembly considers that, where the upholding of national minority rights is concerned, the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe has a major role to play, through work helping to guarantee application of the relevant European rules. Through its resolutions, it can be a decisive factor in guaranteeing the application of the relevant European rules. 62. 1. The issue raised here is by no means irrelevant to the present day. Definition of political science : a social science concerned chiefly with the description and analysis of political and especially governmental institutions and processes Other Words from political science Example Sentences Learn More about political science Other Words from political science The hearing took place in Berlin on 7 June 20044. Article 2: “It is the entitlement and birthright of every person born in the island of Ireland, which includes its islands and seas, to be part of the Irish Nation”. the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages, iii. Nations are socially constructed units, not given by nature. 23. The constitution of Italy lays down the same principle that “The sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it in the forms and limits of the constitution”. 85. 65. In Europe after the Second World War, several states lost not only territory but also large parts of their nations – people who became citizens of the states which occupied the territories where they lived. Terminology: a very relative meaning. The constitutions of other member states also distinguish between the “people” or “nation”, on the one hand, in the sense of ethnic identity, and citizens, on the other, but in a specific way: the preamble to the 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina draws a distinction between the three “constituent peoples” and the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 4. Article 1 lays down the principle of sovereignty vested in the people (“supreme power of the state is held by the people”), and Article 56 stipulates that “the people shall exercise their supreme power through citizens who have the right to vote by electing the Parliament; participating in referenda”. Nation-state definition is - a form of political organization under which a relatively homogeneous people inhabits a sovereign state; especially : a state containing one as opposed to several nationalities. The Assembly notes that within the very complex process of nation building and of the nation-states’ birth, the modern European states founded their legitimacy either on the civic meaning of the concept of nation or on the cultural meaning of the concept of nation. The Assembly also notes that since national minorities as such do not have legal personality they cannot be legal subjects and therefore they cannot be parties to contracts or covenants. 79. The terms state, government and nation differ in meaning. However, while the distinction between those two meanings is still to be identified in some of the Council of Europe member states' constitutions, the general trend of the nation-state’s evolution is towards its transformation depending on the case, from a purely ethnic or ethnocentric state into a civic state and from a purely civic state into a multicultural state where specific rights are recognised not only to physical persons but also to cultural or national communities. Consequently, it invites member states to adopt legislation and regulatory acts recognising the traditional national minorities and apply them in good faith. 2. Furthermore, the problems of translating the term into different languages and those linked to the existence of different legal systems in different countries, in particular the French and English systems, are difficult to resolve. 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