They hire predominantly local, female, and moderately educated teachers who have limited alternative opportunities outside the village. However, this study also found that some demands of the university culture pose bigger challenges to the Pakistani university entrants. Abstract It is suggested that the Problem Posing Model of teaching and learning may be adopted in our ELT Classrooms so that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently. Lexical bundle' is relatively a new term in the field of applied linguistics. The experimental group was trained to use 30 reading strategies (18 Cognitive, 7 Metacognitive, 3 social/affective, and 2 Test-taking strategies) during the intervention following the Cog-nitive Academic Language Learning Approach and using Reciprocal Teaching Procedure Activities. with preventive behavior (r = .328, p < .01) and general anxiety (r = .458, p < .01). Policy makers and academicians can use the findings of this study to analyse the possible effects of Several studies have been conducted on first-year experience and challenges faced by students in adaptation to university culture globally. Specifically, questions arise as to whether English is becoming too successful. Indigenous languages thus become tools that serve to assert ethnic identity and ensure a wider mobilisation. Educational Development. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan’s independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Teaching and learning of English in Pakistani school classrooms indicate that the practice of teaching English in all school types in Pakistan leaves much to be desired with regard to current principles and practice of English language teaching. 1. You have entered an incorrect email address! English is one of the official languages in Pakistan and the most prestigious language in the language hierarchy. 177– 194). Tollefson & A.M.B. reading a text aloud by teachers and/or students; explaining the text in Urdu or local languages, giving the meanings of difficult words in English and/or Urdu/the local language; and getting the students to do follow-up textbook exercises in their notebooks. (2003). A dime a day: The possibilities and limits of private schooling in Pakistan (World Bank policy research working paper 4066) Retrieved February 10 Medium of power: The question of English in education in India Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Analysis of participants’ stories revealed how they narratively constructed specific worldviews within which they reported multiple subordinations resulting from their HME, their gender, and their location in a traditional patriarchal society increasingly influenced by material considerations. Apart from this, several factors make English learning essential as a part of the educational practice and receive particular importance. Lexical bundles help the students to understand the patterns of language that are constructed by the speakers. This study rests on two important considerations: the rapid increase of COVID-19 cases in Pakistan and also the marginalization of the people of the KPK province, which would make them more vulnerable in fearing COVID-19. English language is a passport to achieve the learning goals in education everywhere in the world irrespective of any culture, religion and ethnic background because it is currently an international and most powerful language in different parts of world along with the national languages of the different regions. Multilingual language policies,which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as resources for nation-building, are increasingly in evidence. The study used the analytical approach of Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) (1989; 2003). A quantitative research was adopted to conduct this study in which 300 participants from different schools of district Sheikhupura were selected to measure the effectiveness of LND. Results revealed that the maximum amount of time (i.e. These policies, many of which envision implementation through bilingual intercultural education, open up new worlds of possibility for oppressed indigenous and immigrant languages and their speakers,transforming former homogenizing and assimilationist policy discourses into discourses about diversity and emancipation. Cite this chapter as: Barnawi O.Z., Al-Hawsawi S. (2017) English Education Policy in Saudi Arabia: English Language Education Policy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Current Trends, Issues and Challenges. Teachers have to care for the environment in which the students feel comfortable and feel free in asking questions and learning new things. The implications might also be applicable irrespective of INSET for other subjects and polities with the same context beyond Bangladesh. Contemporary concerns in mathematics education recognize that in the increasingly technological and globalized world, with concomitant change in population demographics (e.g. English on the roles of local languages, especially, in Pakistani educational settings. Whose Agenda? Thus, the knowledge of English is a key indicator of social class and people consider it superior to other languages. This is also one of the problems that mostly the students faced in learning the English language. The article discusses these problems and explores elements of a language policy that might be able to enhance both Bangla literacy and competence in English. But for learning the second language. Semi-Structured interviews conducted for the purpose of study from the DMO and AC of District Sheikhupura, to measure the effectiveness of LND and evaluate the effectiveness. 1. This sheds light on the linguistic comparability of the CEFR levels across L1 groups. However, in this paper I argue that English language should also be discussed in the context of its indispensibility in social mobility and survival in Pakistan. The findings also revealed inverse relation between the level of bilingual education and use of local language in the family domain. from the Pakistan Ministry of Education web site: learning process is moving on some faulty lines which need revisions and amendments. The results revealed that the experimental group students had scored significantly higher than the control group students on reading comprehension post-test and had also shown significantly higher improvement in metacognitive reading strategy awareness than control group students The study recommends strategy-based reading instruction to be an effective option for teaching reading comprehension skills at the university level in Pakistani universities and in the contexts which share similar characteristics. The Cronbach alpha α value for the Urdu FCV-19S displayed good internal reliability at .846. In general, the majority of participants appeared overtly enthusiastic and satisfied with their experiences of learning English in their universities. World Bank Web site: They do a lot of effort in learning the English language as a second language. ESL learners face plenty of problems in the beginning such as cohesion, connectors, repetitions, construction of phrases, sentences and use of lexical items accurately in conveying their message in academic writing. Parents are major beneficiary or sufferer of the outcome of the education of their children. 2016), excessive use of grammar translation method (Rahman, 2001), less emphasis on listening and speaking. Language policy and language planning: From nationalism to globalisation. Current economic conditions in the country appear to play an important role in shaping secondary school graduates' identity as educated persons who know English and who can find ways to cope under these challenging circumstances. This study aims to evaluate the ESL contents to check its suitability to develop learners' communicative competence. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from the In S. Obeng & B. Hartford (Eds. Pakistan’s official and national language is Urdu, and the people live in Pakistan can speak different languages like Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto, Urdu, and Saraiki, etc. Initially, it was decided that English would be replaced with national language Urdu and other local languages when these languages will develop to serve as medium of education and to be offi cial languages. Shamim, F. (1993). that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently. Retrieved January 10, 2006, from Mahboob, A. This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. A comparative case study was used to provide evidence-based descriptions of the teachers’ instructional practices from three Grade 3 classes. student population is consistently ignored when content standards are conceptualized. There is an untrained teaching staff with fluctuating enrollments and low resource facilitation, a dual medium of instruction, weak examination system and government that allocates low budget towards education system. 52 -62). Motivation is one of the important factors that play vital role in learning English at all levels. Activity types and pattern of interaction in language classrooms in Additionally, anxiety also negatively and significantly predicted L2 WTC with a medium effect size (f2 = .26). The Cronbach alpha α value for the Urdu FCV-19S displayed The mediating effect of people (t = − 2.709, p < .001), and unemployed people (t = − 3.199, p < 0.001) of the KPK February) Education in Pakistan: A white paper (revised) Available from the Pakistan Ministry of Education, Aly, J.H. However, the concept of desire attached with acquiring English is a less explored area. Annamalai, E. (2004). The findings of the study reveal that our ELT classrooms are lacking the creativity and critical thinking at large. Research report for the National Committee on English, Higher Education Commission, The results reveal that LND application was not found effective due to the issues in terms of non-availability of technology at home, language, content, assessment, usability and design. This study rests on two important considerations: the rapid increase of COVID-19 cases By drawing upon Woolard & Schieffelin’s Language Ideology Model (1994), this paper analyses how parents perceive the importance of language of instruction for the education of their children. Changing Educational Trends. Language of instruction is a controversial issue in Pakistan. Jalal, Z. This study aimed at investigating students" motivation for learning English at secondary schools and identifying factors that demotivated them. The education systems in place in Pakistan are mainly framed within a didactic approach to teaching and learning, which addresses certain areas of education but does not teach the child as a whole. An official named as "Monitoring & Evaluation Assistant (MEA)" visits every school allocated by authorities once in a month and selects 07-10 students randomly to evaluate them on his own tablet by recording answers of multiple questions related to English, Urdu and Mathematics. 'Doing a lesson' mainly involves a predictable set of activities i.e. of existing reviewed literature to address these research questions. challenges, English is a foreign language INTRODUCTION In the present times, so many books have been published in English about English language in general and English Language Teaching in particular. In the backdrop of the aforementioned ideas, the aim of this paper is to introduce continuous teacher education, that is Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and training of English language and content teachers collaboratively to enhance the pedagogical effectiveness at the primary and secondary level English language education and content teaching of subjects like Mathematics, Science, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc. Contemporary issues such as health, housing, gender disparity, poverty, pressure groups, family, and community values affect education at local, national, and international levels. (n.d.). The increasing domination of English as the world’s leading medium of international professional communication has begun to impact English for Academic Purposes programs. was circulated among a sample of 400 middle/functional managers/ This study recommends that parents’ voice must effectively be included in the making of language policy and they must be made aware of the researches in learning mother tongue or second language as the language of instruction for the education of their children. The paper specifically focuses on discourses of supervision practices in a private university, around the construct of language ideologies. Language policy, culture and identity in the era of globalization. Further, students recommended game based learning consisting of interactive interface, phonics, animations, relevant content and assessment. Unqualified Teachers Teaching English Language: 7. 50% of the total questions were elicitation questions) and the feedback (it was ‘romantic’ in nature). Ties that constrict: English as a Trojan horse. Boys had significantly more often been victimized from physical punishment than girls, with boys from Madrassas being more often victimized than all other groups. This resulted often A four-point Likert was employed to compute language use and language choice in family domain. In recent times, the complete understanding of the importance and roles of English in Pakistani society may remain incomplete without realising its global spread as the major lingua franca in the contemporary world (Rahman, 2007; ... Pakistan does not have a uniform educational system. Research studies usually debate the positive and negative influence of English on students in developing countries. In B. Brock-Utne, Z. Desai, & M. Qonno (Eds. Therefore, it seems necessary to see how young Pakistanis envision the role of English In examining debate over educational language policy in the two countries, I take into account political and economic differences, but I also identify parallels in the hierarchical evaluation of languages. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. There was positive impact of students" motivation on their achievement scores in English. Pakistan is faced with a multitude of challenges in the education sector. Analysis also revealed the varying degrees to which they resisted such subordinations. In Pakistan, the students study most of the subjects in the English language and they learn the English language from school to university but mostly the students cannot speak the English language fluently. The imposition of English in education and its perceived prestige create additional problems for low socioeconomic status (SES) students who often have limited access to English. Additionally, the discourse of mathematics classrooms which promote mathematical discussion and reasoning, and where the mathematics texts are encoded in the "everyday use phrases" in the language of instruction, required students to understand the mathematics intent embedded in the "every day use phrases" and at the same time understand the language of instruction. The researchers worked on literature to find out one of the best teaching approaches that can help learners to partake actively and achieve learning goals of language skills according to the needs of current scenario with the help of language abilities and communicative activities under the umbrella of enabling skills through pedagogical and target tasks. interviews of Pakistani undergraduate EFL learners were conducted to get an in-depth data about The results revealed a gap between the required SLOs (students’ learning objectives) and the students’ acquired competency level in English at primary level. As a more interactive and attractive presentation of the content and variations in the assessment may increase students' involvement and will make this application more effective and will produce good results. The quantity and quality of resources such as human resources allocated for teaching and learning process. Request PDF | Trends, issues and challenges in English language education in Pakistan. This paper reviews several of the resulting ideological challenges to EAP. The education system thus perpetuates the existing class structure by providing limited access to English for ordinary people and minimizes their opportunities to participate in the development of the country. The present study aims to explore the challenges and to suggest solutions to improve English learning and teaching in rural primary schools of Karachi, Pakistan. The target population was 1947 male primary school teachers, of whom 330 was selected. Their parents only speak to them and they learn their mother tongue. Urdu . This study aimed to investigate the amount and type of teacher-talk, frequently asked questions and feedback provided by the teacher on learners’ performance in a language classroom. It would not be wrong to say that the Urdu language has revived in recent years due to post-Colonial and nationalistic debates. from a research project in Tanzania and South Africa. This is a study of the relationship between the systems of education, worldview and inequality in Pakistan. This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. Provinces in Pakistan have initiated teaching English as a compulsory subject in Grade 1 onwards in their government schools by following the latest National Education Policy (NEP) of 2009. The English language is teaching in all over Pakistan from basic school level to higher university level. and does organizational commitment mediate the No doubt, across the world, advantages of critical thinking in education motivated educators focus on developing the critical thinking ability and traits among students more than ever before, yet ample evidence from literature has shown the lack of critical thinking skills among students at all level. Teachers may also assess the learning preferences of their students, especially those of the less proficient, to address psychological and social obstacles/issues, which hinder their participation in the class. Or they enforce them to do jobs and works and make money. The Keywords: achievement scores, classroom management, instructional strategies, education medium, secondary level, self-efficacy, students’ engagement. The researchers conducted 20 semi structured interviews from parents of Hyderabad Town by using Maximum Variation Sampling. In this study we intended to understand whether the policy was implemented successfully in the province of Balochistan. To achieve this skill, researchers believe that development of metacognitive strategies is one of the requirements, especially for second language readers, as it supports understanding and improves comprehension. These books view the subject differently by presenting a plethora of voices trying to liberalize themselves from the clutches of traditional methods of teaching. There has been debate among educationists, researchers and intellectuals about the role of a language in education in Pakistan. Brock-Utne, B. Education is considered as the cheapest defense of a nation. (2003). Tsui, A.B.M. Understanding language and power in the Solomon Islands: Paper presented at the CEL international seminar on English in the people of the KPK. Retrieved June 10, 2007, They didn’t take an interest in learning the English language. It reviews relevant studies of the spread of English in societies throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. In the light of findings, it was recommended that grammar should be taught inductively, students should be given substantial practice in listening and speaking, and teachers may employ different motivational strategies to increase students" interest in learning English language at schools. Using an online Google survey, we were able to sample 501 The Recolonization of the African Mind. It is hoped that this research would lead the academicians towards more democratic styles of supervision. Traffic and search trends within and across popular education websites [objective] 4. The results of this research can inform the planning and monitoring of future literacy development initiatives, and thereby, improve assessment results of learners. Channa (2015Channa ( , 2017 and. agenda? In S. Mansoor, S. Meraj, & A. Tahir (Eds. The link between the use of language as a symbol of ethnic identity to resist the state's imposition of Urdu as the only national language if Pakistan is studied in detail with reference to the Bengali language movement, the Sindhi-Urdu controversy, the Siraiki movement, the Pashto movement, the language movements of Baluchistan and the Punjabi language movement. The symbolic power of language helps to understand the importance of English from the participants’ perspectives and the role of education in perpetuating the existing class structure by limiting access to English. In large classes research & teacher development network technique and the process of learning the! Has not been able to sample 501 respondents from the world above factors schools, and... Gender disproportion, challenges continue to keep Bangladesh from advancing further results revealed the... 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