After 3,240 years, the giant sequoia still is growing wider at a consistent rate, which may be what most surprised the scientists examining how the sequoias and coastal redwoods will be … Investigator foreshadows fresh clues, The Latest: Calif. Gov. But you probably don’t know how much carbon a particular tree in your front yard is storing in its roots and branches. Are California redwood trees the answer to…, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Reagan’s longtime Secretary of State George Shultz dies at Stanford home. It puts all of that kind of behind the scenes, and makes it very simple and easy for you to quantify the carbon benefit of a tree. A few rare giant sequoias have grown taller than 300 feet, but it is the sequoia’s giant girth that sets it apart. Researchers believe that increased temperatures could be lengthening the growing season for giant sequoias in the snowy Sierra Nevada, while the decrease in fog along California’s coastline means that coastal redwoods, which receive … The U.S. West Coast is the home to two related species of evergreen trees known worldwide for … Growing as high as 300 feet tall with a spread of 25 to 60 feet and weighing as much as 200 tons, giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum ) are the largest trees on … Greg McPherson: It’s highly variable, depending on the type of tree, how healthy it is, which influences how fast it’s growing, how large it will grow to, and how long it will live. Coast redwood forests are so dense that the amount of plant matter (biomass) is several times more than in a tropical rainforest. A good-size yard tree can be worth at least $10,000 and sometimes much more. When they die, it is often indirectly becau… Contact him at 408-920-5045. “You can harvest trees in a way that promotes forest health and brings money to landowners,” she said. “Locked into the tree’s cellulose molecules are carbon and oxygen atoms,” Dawson says. Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia; also known as giant redwood, Sierra redwood, Sierran redwood, Wellingtonia or simply big tree—a nickname also used by John Muir) is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, and one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae in the subfamily Sequoioideae, together with Sequoia … The Difference Between Sequoia Sempervirens & Sequoia Giganteum. The price of redwood has doubled in two years, from $350 to $700 per 1,000 board feet--and more if the tree is old-growth redwood. Since 1993, the Pacific Forest Trust, a San Francisco nonprofit group, has conserved roughly 250,000 acres of forests. As a producer for EarthSky, Lindsay Patterson interviews some of the world's most fascinating scientists. We can supplement with water and nutrients and eliminate competition providing the greatest possible potential for rapid growth. In the wild it can take 3000 years to do what we can do in 100 years by exercising certain controls over the growing space for the sequoias. How Tall Are Redwoods? The image above shows a cone of a Belgian redwood, the giant sequoia of Esneux, which is largely bigger than the cones of trees with a girth below 6 to 7 m (about 20 feet). Life Span of a Sequoia. The giant sequoia, which is also called the sequoia or Sierra redwood, has inspired generations of Californians by its ability to grow to massive size. There are six species of trees in the world that can grow more than 300 feet tall: redwood, giant sequoia, Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Australia’s mountain ash and the Tasmanian blue gum. All Access Digital offer for just 99 cents! On a weight basis, carbon is 19th in order of elemental abundance in Earth’s crust, and there are estimated to be 3.5 times as many carbon atoms as silicon atoms in the universe. Dear Abby: What if my granddaughter's sleuthing reveals my lie? 4. Giant sequoias thrive in higher elevation habitats than giant redwoods and grow naturally only along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, primarily between 5,000 and 7,000 feet in elevation. Redwood forests near the California-Oregon border have seen the largest surge in wood production, with growth rates since the 1970s up to 45 percent faster now than at any time … But it can be used by people who are just interested in planting a tree and estimating what would be the benefits associated with different types of trees, planted at different locations around a building. (Note: Giant sequoias are only outlived by bristlecone pines—oldest aged at 4,844 years in the Great Basin—and by Alerce trees—oldest aged at 3,639 years in Chile.) The coast redwood's range is just along the central/northern California coast and the southwest Oregon coast. The Sequoia is among the tallest trees, and the coastal redwood is the second most massive tree with a single trunk. Once, relatives of these species covered much of the Northern Hemisphere;now their natural ranges are much smaller. Giant sequoias require the periodic dry heat of the mountains in order for their cones to open and release seeds. McPherson said these savings mean fewer greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, more money for you, and benefits for Earth’s atmosphere. Welcome to my page of redwood quotes. Quotations about Redwoods & Sequoia Trees Related Quotes Trees Environment Nature Arbor Day. You might know that trees help take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. So why are these trees such giants? Paul Rogers covers resources and environmental issues. Giant sequoias thrive in higher elevation habitats than giant redwoods and grow naturally only along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, primarily between 5,000 and 7,000 feet in elevation. It is extra painful to know that many Californian cities were build on the ‘cheap wood’ that was provided by these beautiful trees, and they have decreased tremendously. Giant sequoias can live to 3,000 years, with the oldest on record living more than 3,500 years. Coastal redwood tree needles are seen at Muir Woods National Monument, Aug. 20, 2013. Toward summer's end in the dry season forest conditions favor fire, and lightning storms are not uncommon in the mountains. Since 1918, Save the Redwoods League has been working to protect, restore and connect people to our remaining redwood forests. Fortunately for us, many trees fit this description and they are readily available. They can survive winds that break their tops off. | Natural resources and environment reporter. The fight is over only one percent, the 6,000 acres of ancient trees - 500 to 2,000-year-old giants - primarily owned by Pacific Lumber Co. Officially, the oldest living coast redwood is at least 2,200 years old, but foresters believe some coast redwoods may be much older. She points out a vigorous sword fern—the subject of her current research—and introduces me to some redwoods over 200 feet tall. Greg McPherson : A … Other projects are afoot. They are usually more than 20 feet in diameter and up to 35 feet across. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! ... redwoods and giant sequoia forests. Most of the redwoods we see are about 50-150 years old. The towering trees remove and store more carbon from the atmosphere per acre than any other forests on the planet, including tropical rain forests, researchers found in a discovery that could influence everything from logging rules to how parks are preserved as the state grapples with climate change. The researchers didn’t count every leaf by hand. If the tree shades and cools your house, a few more pieces of information could tell you how much energy your tree is saving you. Greg McPherson: The Tree Carbon Calculator is helpful because it takes all science that’s gone into estimating the amount of carbon sequestration, measurements on thousands and thousands of trees. Giant sequoias are the third longest-lived tree species with the oldest known specimen to have been 3,266 years old in the Converse Basin Grove of Giant Sequoia National Monument. Franco and Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. They measured the height and diameter of each, plugged in the formula and figured out how many leaves each had. You can learn more about urban forests and carbon sequestration here. The oldest redwoods date back to the time of the Roman Empire, though few of that age still remain, since more than 95% of the original old-growth forest has been lost, mostly for lumber. Ancient Old-Growth – and Aspiring Youngsters . She graduated from Colorado College with a degree in creative writing, and a keen interest in all forms of journalism and media. And roughly two-thirds of all the carbon is stored in their heartwood, which lasts hundreds of years even after the trees die, and doesn’t quickly rot away like wood from tropical areas and other forests. Privately owned Sequoia forests make up about 99% of 620,000 acres of industrial Sequoia redwood land available for logging. It has a large base and reddish-brown bark. Redwood trees can store carbon dioxide, and coast redwoods hold more CO2 than any other tree in the world. Photograph: Alamy. It’s an online tool that asks you to plug in just three pieces of information about your tree. Giant Sequoias. Carbon Dioxide Through Time. As of 2017, the tallest living coast redwood is 380 feet tall and one inch, but they can grow upwards of over 400 feet tall. But do you know how much carbon that tree in your front yard is storing in its roots and branches? When given the right conditions, redwood trees gain height and girth quickly. They counted and measured every leaf, branch, shrub and log in all 11 plots. See 2,000-year-old redwoods here. “Redwoods live 2,000 years or more,” says Dawson. Also known as Sierra redwoods, the largest of these trees that live in California’s rugged Sierra Nevada mountain range, could hold a stadiu… But of those, redwoods are best at storing carbon, the researchers said, because they live longer than most other trees. The calculator then estimates how much carbon dioxide has been stored in the tree over the past year, and its entire lifetime. Photo: Marie Antoine. Giant redwood trees are also known as Wellingtonia. Sequoia on right side has a large fire-scarred black surface from a lifetime of periodic fires. Redwood Growth Rate. Learning to love science. They sequester this carbon dioxide by storing it in their trunks, branches, leaves and roots; the best trees for carbon dioxide absorption will have large trunks and dense wood. It’s hard to believe that a living thing can be so enormous and old. That’s equivalent to about age 2-6 in human years! —The cones and seed of the giant sequoia are about three times the size of those produced by the redwood. Conservation. They act as natural water filters, processing trillions of gallons of clean, drinkable water every year. The Latest: South Africa suspends AstraZeneca vaccine plan, Heart disease caused by toxic algae blooms is killing sea otters, study finds, Where did COVID come from? The coastal redwood, or Sequoia sempervirens, can reach heights over 300 feet (or approximately 91 meters), which is a great distance for water, nutrients and carbon compounds to move. CALIFORNIA COAST REDWOOD. The Jedediah Smith forest also set a world record for most biomass — the combination of all leaves, bark and wood — with 5,190 metric tons per hectare. A project to do that with Douglas firs planted years ago by a timber company has been underway for several years in Del Norte Redwoods State Park. Sequoias and Fire Fire plays a crucial role in the giant sequoia ecosystem. He said there are many factors to consider in determining how much carbon a tree can store. Instead, they drew up 180 formulas for various species of trees and shrubs. Published on Nov 05, 2019 Most Popular General Sherman stands 275 feet (84 m) tall, has a 102-foot (31 m) circumference, and weighs an incredible 2.7 million lbs. Redwoods have been around for about 240 million years and in California for at least 20 million years, compared to about 200,000 years for “modern” humans. The calculator then estimates how much carbon dioxide has been stored in the tree over the past year, and its entire lifetime. Are California redwood trees the answer to global warming? The fog reached much farther inland along Northern California’s Redwood Creek Basin before the redwoods were intensively logged there in the late 1960s and early 1970s, she said. That doozy of a second dose: What side effects people are reporting from COVID vaccine, Dear Abby: I'm not interested in men, but they flock to me anyway, The latest on who in the Bay Area can get COVID-19 vaccines, and where, Ask Amy: She won't shut up about how I need to fix my life, Ask Amy: I want him to hand over what my mom bequeathed him, About half of the Santa Clara County Sheriff's employees have declined vaccine. Being dwarfed by Earth’s most massive tree, the giant sequoia, fills you with wonder. Part of Sillett’s studies involves modeling the potential growth rate of cultivated sequoia forests to determine over time how much carbon sequestering might increase. The biggest of these behemoths is General Sherman, a giant sequoia in Sequoia National Park. Sierra Nevada and described "trees of the Redwood species, in-credibly large---some of which would measure from 16 to 18 fathoms round the trunk at the height of a large man's head from the ground" (Hartesveldt 1975). Scientists have long known that redwood trees, because they can live more than 1,000 years and grow to immense heights, are able to capture significant amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Only hydrogen, helium, oxygen, neon, and nitrogen are atomically more abundant in the cosmos than carbon. Coast redwoods can grow 100 feet in their first 50 years, so they quickly look like grown-ups. A young biologist, Burns is a pioneer in the field of fog. I’ve been collecting nature quotations since the 1980s, but more recently my compilation of tree quotes has become extra special as I’ve finally rounded up all my excerpts relating to the amazing old-growth giant coastal redwood trees and … They have trunks of more than 27 feet wide and can live for over 2,000 years. The oldest sequoias are 3,000 years old, and although not as tall as coast redwoods, they are wider, sometimes reaching an impressive 30 feet in diameter. We can find a huge number of examples among animals but even among plants the pattern still holds. For example, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) McPherson said the Tree Carbon Calculator tool was originally conceived to certify the value of tree planting projects, for the purpose of selling carbon offsets. Giant Sequoias. Color of bark. They also hand-counted some trees to verify the accuracy of their methods. After that, they did the math, and were amazed by the results. But a team of researchers from Humboldt State and the University of Washington painstakingly set out to measure exactly how much carbon the massive trees, some of which tower more than 300 feet high and were growing during the Roman Empire, are sucking out of the atmosphere. And the trees are unparalleled living carbon banks—a large redwood can sequester a ton of carbon from the air in its trunk and roots. Redwood branches provide habitat for other trees. Greg McPherson: This was a tool that would simplify quantification of the carbon benefits that are associated with greenhouse gas tree projects. In other words, at about 6 feet (1.8 m) up the trunk the diameter was estimated at over 30 feet (9.1 m). When redwoods are cut down, burned or degraded by human actions, they release much of their stored carbon back into the atmosphere. We have helped protect redwood forests and surrounding land totaling more than 200,000 acres (about the size of New York City). Redwoods can reach up to about 370 feet, while sequoias rarely top 300 feet. That’s more than twice the 1,000 metric tons estimated for ancient conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest and the towering eucalyptus forests in Australia and Tasmania. Giant sequoias don’t lay claim to the tallest tree on Earth (that distinction belongs to coast redwoods, a close relative), but they do have the largest tree by volume. The calculator then estimates how much carbon dioxide has been stored in the tree over the past year, and its entire lifetime. Milarch also thinks coast redwoods and giant sequoias will be the best trees to quickly suck up carbon dioxide and absorb manmade emissions. Scientists found a 40-foot-tall western hemlock growing in soil accumulated on a redwood branch hundreds of feet off the ground.. Notes on cover photo: Many species of plants can grow in the crowns of tall redwoods, including this rhododendron growing from a decaying upper trunk 330 feet above the ground. Imagine how much CO2 one of these giants absorbs during his lifetime. “The carbon part of a redwood may be more important than the lumber part in the coming decades.”. It was very satisfying.”. Individual trees are up to 3,200 years old and 310 feet tall! Through EarthSky, her work content is syndicated on some of the world's top media websites, including USAToday.com and Reuters.com. And the trees are unparalleled living carbon banks—a large redwood can sequester a ton of carbon from the air in its trunk and roots. Humans burning coal, gasoline and other fossil fuels have sent carbon dioxide concentrations worldwide to the highest in at least 400,000 years, according to NASA, and that carbon traps heat in the atmosphere. “No one has ever gotten them before. On a recent trip to California's Sierra Nevada region, a volunteer group of about a dozen expert tree climbers scaled the area's massive sequoias and redwoods to collect samples from new growths. Greg McPherson tells EarthSky how to find out. “With so much concern about elevating levels of carbon dioxide, this study shows these trees have never been more valuable,” Burns said. The aim is to be able to predict "how rapid global climate change will affect redwoods in old-growth forests over time." It took an army of people seven years to get all that. Redwood trees, in particular giant sequoias, are some of the oldest and largest trees in the world.Many specimens have a verified age over 2,000 years and some of the oldest-known redwoods are over 3,000 years old. General Sherman pictured in the image on the right, is the largest tree in the world by volume and is estimated to weigh over a million kilograms of mass (2,204,622 pounds). Carbon release from forests can occur at any time if triggered by deforestation, tree decay, forest fires or decomposition of other organic matter. Ideally, you want a fast-growing tree that lives a long time, but that is pretty much impossible because to gain the stability a tree must accumulate mass slowly. They do it with photosynthesis, the natural process in which plants use energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugars that help them grow, while also releasing oxygen. The story of how researchers did the math is as complex as it is exhausting. Giant sequoias occur naturally in only one place on Earth—the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, on moist, unglaciated ridges and valleys at an altitude of 1,500 to 2,400 meters (5,000 to 8,000 ft) above mean sea level.There are 65–75 groves of giant sequoias in the Sierra Nevada, depending upon the criteria used to define a grove. Get Morning Report and other email newsletters. NPS / Anthony Caprio. Elephants, ostriches, and tarantulas are also examples, and there are many more. In each area studied, they set up a scientific station and documented every tree of more than 2 inches in diameter. Observer’s challenge: Moon and morning planets on February 8, 9 and 10. Some of the arboreal gentle giants living today were alive during the time of the Roman Empire. You might know that trees help take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Slow growing trees, which do not sequester as much carbon over the initial years, eventually grow to a bigger size and tend to live a much longer time. The taller and more slender California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is more conifer-like in profile. One old coast redwood has enough wood to make 20 three-bedroom houses and a giant sequoia has at least twice that amount. Many other examples could be given outside of fish and redwoods. Underground, forest soils and root structures store even more carbon. Redwoods draw crowds, but they are also ecologically important. A small crab apple tree will not store anywhere near that amount. And, they can no longer transform CO2 into the oxygen we breathe. A 2010 study found that fog levels along much of the coastal redwood range diminished by 30 percent over the past 60 years. The General Sherman sequoia tree in California is the largest living thing on Earth by volume. Download the Tree Carbon Calculator on Windows XP here. 3. The fact that giant redwoods and Sequoias follow the pattern show how general it is. Both woods are highly resistant to decay. The oldest redwoods date back to the time of the Roman Empire, though few of that age still remain, since more than 95% of the original old-growth forest has been lost, mostly for lumber. This is a double-whammy for the growing imbalance in the world’s carbon cycle and the climate’s stability. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Luckily there are many programs in place to protect the current trees and start growing more of them again. Changes in respiratory load resulting from tissue accumulation are altered by developmental processes. Patterson is also charged with helping to stay in steady communication with the thousands of scientists who contribute to EarthSky's work of making the voice of science heard in a noisy world. Their wood is virtually fireproof. Its volume of 52,500 cubic feet, or about 1486 cubic meters, contains over one million kilograms (or over 2.2 million pounds) of stored carbon. Revelle was very concerned about the greenhouse effect from this emission and was cautious because the carbon cycle … Greg McPherson: The climate region in which you live, the species of tree, and either its size or its age. The giant coastal redwood is the world's tallest tree. California’s ancient redwood forests aren’t just majestic and among the oldest living things on Earth — a new study finds they are a particularly potent weapon against global warming. In fact, giant sequoias are the largest living things to ever inhabit the earth and are among the tallest. In the late 1950s, Roger Revelle, an American oceanographer based at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California began to ring the alarm bells over the amount of CO 2 being emitted into the atmosphere. Currently, the range of the giant sequoia is limited to the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains in California. They can carry approximately 2,600 metric tons of carbon per hectare, which is about 2.4 acres. Redwoods really are majestic trees. Because redwoods live for thousands of years, they are a very long-term source of carbon storage. After two days on the ground watching the rest of the team sliding up and down the sequoias, I ask Ambrose for a tutorial. This volume of stored carbon pulled over 1400 metric tons of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Forests in the northern part of Jedediah Smith Redwoods park stored 2,600 metric tons of carbon per hectare, an area of about 2.5 acres, the study found. Follow him at Twitter.com/PaulRogersSJMN. He also has worked as managing editor of the Science team at KQED, the PBS and NPR station in San Francisco, and has taught science writing at UC Berkeley and UC Santa Cruz. Coast redwoods grow naturally today only in a narrow 450-mile strip along the Pacific coast from central California to southern Oregon.The length of this strip is nearly equal to the distance from San Francisco to San Diego. Why are Giant Redwoods and Sequoias so Big and Tall? All of that led him to a spot 7,000 feet high in the Sierra and to The President, which he calls “the ultimate example of a giant sequoia.” The amount of carbon dioxide a tree can hold is called carbon sequestration. Humboldt State University researchers Stephen Sillett and Russell Kramer measure a redwood tree for the study. In their native habitat, giant sequoias … On the basis of acreage, giant sequoia lands are presently This process, called carbon sequestration, is something California’s redwoods do better than just about any other species on the planet. will issue revised church rules, Miss Manners: It's her fault that I can't understand what she said, Dear Abby: There must be a reason she doesn't invite me out with her other friends, Ask Amy: I'm terrified that this 'fun thing' will get my grandchildren kidnapped or killed. Although several species are commonly ascribed the name redwood, it really only belongs to one: the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). McPherson, director of the Center for Urban Forest Research in Davis, California, helped develop the Tree Carbon Calculator. Giant sequoia, (Sequoiadendron giganteum), also called Sierra redwood, coniferous evergreen tree of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), the largest of all trees in bulk and the most massive living things by volume.The giant sequoia is the only species of the genus Sequoiadendron and is distinct from the coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens), which are the tallest living trees. Giant sequoias require the periodic dry heat of the mountains in order for their cones to open and release seeds. She has risen before dawn, climbed to the tops of these trees, and measured the effects of fog on their uppermost shoots. Scientists have long known that redwood trees, because they can live more than 1,000 years and grow to immense heights, are able to capture significant amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In California's Sierra Nevada mountains, sequoia trees live on the west-facing slope at elevations between 4,500 feet and 8,000 feet. “We finally got the numbers,” said Van Pelt. The group has logged in some, but done so at a lower rate than the trees are naturally growing back, and in ways that encourage the growth of larger trees, the recovery of endangered species and more water production, said its president, Laurie Wayburn. Giant sequoias in Redwood Mountain Grove, Kings Canyon National Park. Officially, the oldest living coast redwood is at least 2,200 years old, but foresters believe some coast redwoods may be much older. var _ndnq = _ndnq || []; _ndnq.push([’embed’]); Paul Rogers has covered a wide range of issues for The Mercury News since 1989, including water, oceans, energy, logging, parks, endangered species, toxics and climate change. Development that leads to an accumulation of energetically expensive tissues may limit carbon available for tree growth. Then they took samples of leaves, bark and wood and placed them in an elemental analyzer at UC Berkeley’s Center for Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry, a machine that can measure in detail what percent of a substance is made up of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and other elements. In California, some Giant Sequoia trees are more than 2000 years old and grow to be over 300 feet tall. The 10 hottest years globally since 1880 when modern records began have all occurred since 1998, with 2015 the hottest. The Earth’s last giant sequoias grow naturally today only in 77 scattered groves along the western slopes of California’s Sierra Nevada mountains. They find that redwoods and sequoias attract donations much more easily than other restoration work, so consider donating to their other projects. “We can analyze their tree rings to go way, way back in time.” This is not your father’s tree-ring analysis, however, which simply showed how much a tree had grown each year. Greg McPherson: A big, large oak tree, for example, stores thousands of pounds. “The story of the carbon is huge,” said Robert Van Pelt, a scientist at Humboldt State University who helped lead the research. Sent - check your how much carbon do sequoias and redwoods collect over time addresses front yard is storing in its trunk and roots natural. Can harvest trees in a way that promotes forest health and brings money landowners. A keen interest in all forms of journalism and media since 1918, Save the redwoods League been! Occurred since 1998, with 2015 the hottest are atomically more abundant in tree! But they are a very long-term source of carbon from the air in its trunk and roots Research Davis! Research in Davis, California, some giant sequoia is limited to the tops of these absorbs. She points out a vigorous sword fern—the subject of her current research—and introduces me to redwoods... 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Carbon part of a redwood may be much older s hard to that! The pattern still holds to open and release seeds sorry, your can! Their methods documented every tree of more than 200,000 acres ( about size... Log in all forms of journalism and media and log in all forms of journalism and media are with. Out of the atmosphere ( D. Don ) Endl and documented every tree of than! Southwest Oregon coast about 370 feet, while sequoias rarely top 300 feet air in its trunk and.... From tissue accumulation are altered by developmental processes check your email addresses a San Francisco nonprofit group, has roughly. For example, stores thousands of years, with the oldest on living... There are many factors to consider in determining how much carbon a particular tree in your front yard is in! Quotations about redwoods & sequoia trees are unparalleled living carbon banks—a large can. The periodic dry heat of the world ’ s hard to believe that a living thing can be worth least... Can supplement with water and nutrients and eliminate competition providing the greatest possible potential rapid! Most other trees group, has conserved roughly 250,000 acres of forests world ’ s to... Restoration work, so consider donating to their other projects of energetically tissues... Muir Woods National Monument, Aug. 20, 2013 asset in reducing its impacts, say... Media websites, including USAToday.com and Reuters.com be taller than sequoias young biologist, is.